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The University of Western Sydney (UWS) began operation on 1st January 1989, under the terms of the University of Western Sydney Act, 1988 which had been passed by the New South Wales Parliament in December 1988. However, the predecessors of the University date back as far as 1891 with the establishment of the Hawkesbury Agricultural College. The Act created a federated network university, based on two existing Colleges of Advanced Education - Hawkesbury Agricultural College and Nepean College of Advanced Education. Following incorporation into the University, the foundation network members were known as the 'University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury' (UWS Hawkesbury) and the 'University of Western Sydney, Nepean' (UWS Nepean). The Act was amended by the University of Western Sydney (Amendment) Act, 1989 (Act No. 128, 1989) and the Macarthur Institute of Higher Education became the third University member on 1 November 1989. The new campus was known as the 'University of Western Sydney, Macarthur' (UWS Macarthur).